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Maike Naujoks. A Study of the Logbara Ma'di Language. Nigerian Pidgin vs. Tok Pisin: A Comparison of the Grammar. Julia Burg. Barry Blake. Exploring Language Structure. Thomas Payne. Topics in Kwa Syntax. Enoch O. Basics of Language for Language Learners, 2nd Edition. Peter W.
- Luke (Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on The New Testament series).
- Rapanui: A Descriptive Grammar.
- Descriptive Grammars: Rapanui : A Descriptive Grammar by Veronica Du Feu (1995, Hardcover)?
Mathias Jenny. The Germanic Languages. Ekkehard Konig. International English. Peter Trudgill. Grammatical Relations.
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Is English Changing? Steve Kleinedler. The Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Typology. Alexandra Y. Complex Words in English.
Rapanui: A Descriptive Grammar
Valerie Adams. Niko Besnier. Amazonian Linguistics. Doris L. Linguistic Survey of the Northern Bantu Borderland. Pronouns are usually marked for number: in Rapa Nui there are markers for first, second and third personal singular and plural; however, there is only a marker for dual in the first person. The first person dual and plural can mark for exclusive and inclusive. There is only one paradigm of pronouns for Rapa Nui. They function the same in both subject and object cases. Here is the table for the pronoun forms in Rapa Nui .
Where there is no expectation of a particular answer, the form remains the same as a statement. A question expecting an agreement is preceded by hoki. Original Rapa Nui has no conjunctive particles. Copulative, adversative and disjunctive notions are typically communicated by context or clause order. Modern Rapa Nui has almost completely adopted Spanish conjunctions rather than rely on this. In the Rapa Nui language, there are alienable and inalienable possession.
Lichtemberk described alienable possession as the possessed noun being contingently associated with the possessor, and on the other hand inalienable possession as the possessed noun being necessarily associated with the possessor. The distinction is marked by a possessive suffix inserted before the relevant pronoun.
Possessive particles:. Alienable possession is used to refer to a person's spouse, children, food, books, work, all animals except horses , all tools and gadgets including refrigerators , and some illnesses. It is used with parents, siblings, house, furniture, transports including carts, cars, scooters, boats, airplanes , clothes, feeling, native land, parts of the body including mind , horses, and their bridles.
Inalienable possession o is used in this example, therefore "'o'oku" instead of "'a'aku" is used. It is talking about the speaker's brother, which is an inalienable relation. There are no markers to distinguish between temporary or permanent possession; the nature of objects possessed; or between past, present or future possession. A and O possession refer to alienable and inalienable possession in Rapa Nui.
However, for all the other situations, a and o are not marked as a suffix of the possessor. Therefore, o is marked not as a suffix of the possessor but a separate word in the sentence. Ko and ka are exclamatory indicators. Terms which did not exist in original Rapa Nui were created via compounding: . In Rapa Nui, negation is indicated by free standing morphemes.
Clausal negators occur in the same position as aspect markers and subordinators- this means it's impossible for these elements to co-occur. Verbal negators precede adjectives. Kai negates clauses with perfective aspects. This marker occurs when the clause has perfect aspect often obligatory with the perfect marker ko. When combined with kai , it indicates that the negative state continues. It is also used to negate locative phrases, actor emphasis constructions, and is also used to reinforce the preposition mai.
It also occurs in main clauses with main clause negators and aspect markers i and e , when the clause has a feature of a subordinate clause such as oblique constituents . It immediately follows the noun in the adjective position, and is used to indicate that the entity expressed by the noun or noun modifier does not exist or is lacking in the given context. Double negation occurs very frequently in imperatives in particular. There is a system for the numerals 1—10 in both Rapa Nui and Tahitian, both of which are used, though all numbers higher than ten are expressed in Tahitian.
When counting, all numerals whether Tahitian or Rapanui are preceded by 'ka'. This is not used, however, when using a number in a sentence. Within Eastern Polynesian, it is closest to Marquesan morphologically, although its phonology has more in common with New Zealand Maori , as both languages are relatively conservative in retaining consonants lost in other Eastern Polynesian languages. Like all Polynesian languages, Rapa Nui has relatively few consonants. It is, or until recently was, a verb-initial language.
Very little is known about the Rapa Nui language prior to European contact. Due to extensive borrowing from Tahitian there now often exist two forms for what was the same word in the early language. Spanish notes from a visit to the island record 94 words and terms. Many are clearly Polynesian, but several are not easily recognizable. Grammaire et Dictionnaire de la langue des Iles Marquises. West Futuna-Aniwa: an introduction to a Polynesian outlier language. The Rapanui language in: Fischer, Steven Roger editor. A Tikopia vocabulary in: Journal of the Polynesian Society , vol 22, pp and The linguistic position of Niuafo'ou in: Journal of the Polynesian Society , vol 89, no 3, pp Fish and fishing on Niuatoputapu including fish names which are probably remnants of the Niuatoputapu language in: Oceania 53, pp Phonemic expansion in Rennellese in: Journal of the Polynesian Society , vol 71, pp Dictionary of the language of Rennell and Bellona - part 1 Rennellese-English.
No date. Conversational Hawaiian. From the two canoes: oral traditions of Rennell and Bellona Islands. Hawwaiian Dictionary. Kapingamarangi: social and religious life of a Polynesian atoll in: Bernice P. Genetic relations of Polynesian sibling terminologies in: American Anthropologist , vol 75, pp for a comment on this article, see Clark L and R in Tikopia language in: Oceanic Linguistics , vol 2, no 2, pp Sibling terms in Polynesia in: Journal of the Polynesian Society , vol 79, p Tikopia-English dictionary Taranga fakatikopia ma taranga fakainglisi.
Homogeneity in Old Rapanui in: Oceanic Linguistics , vol 31, pp Easter Island sudies: contributions to the history of Rapanui in memory of William T. Rapanui's great old words: e timo te akoako in: Journal of the Polynesian Society , vol , pp Preliminary evidence for cosmogonic texts in Rapanui's Rongorongo inscriptions in: Journal of the Polynesian Society , vol , pp Nga Kupu Whakamarama: Maori Grammar.
Manual Rapanui: A Descriptive Grammar (Descriptive Grammars)
Ko le fonu tu'a limulimua La tortue au dos moussu - Textes de tradition orale de Futuna. Dictionary and grammar of the Easter Island language. Four Aniwan Songs including vocabulary in: Journal of the Polynesian society , vol 3, pp Aniwan Folklore including vocabulary in: Journal of the Polynesian society , vol 3, pp Linguistic subgrouping within Polynesia: The implications for prehistoric settlement in: Journal of the Polynesian society , vol 75, no 1, pp Anuta's position in the subgrouping of the Polynesian languages in: Journal of the Polynesian Society , vol 80, pp Dictionaire futunien-franais avec notes grammaticales.
Ethnologue: Languages of the world.
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Languages of Asia and the Pacific contains info on Tongan, Samoan and Tahitian, including useful short vocabularies for beginners. North Ryde, Australia. Rapan lifeways: Society and history on a Polynesian island. A wordlist of South Island Maori in series: Te reo monographs. Reao report. The culture of gender in Pukapuka: male, female and the mayakitanga 'sacred maid' in: Journal of the Polynesian Society , vol 86, pp Te parau a Honoura in: Journal of the Polynesian society , vol 4, pp Ancient Tahiti in: Bernice P.
M translation into Niue by Tongakilo. Ko e tau tala kia Maui. The social organization of Ontong-Java in: Oceania , vol 1, pp Review of 'A dictionary of some Tuamotuan dialects of the Polynesian language' by J. Frank Stimson and Donald Marshall in: Language , vol 42, pp The accusative to ergative drift in Polynesian languages in: Journal of the Polynesian Society , vol 78, pp Tokelauan in series: Languages of the world.
Materials , no An Introduction to Tuvaluan 64 pages. Let's speak Samoan. Det polynesiska verbmorfemet -Cia ; om dess funktion i samoanska [The Polynesian verbal morpheme -Cia; its function in Samoan] B. Some grammatical properties of Samoan kin terms M. Hawaiian proverbs and riddles. Millwood, New York. E kama'ilio hawai'i kakou Let's speak Hawaiian. Te ngangana a te tuvalu: Handbook on the language of the Ellice Islands.
Ethno-archaeological investigations in Futuna and 'Uvea Western Polynesia : A preliminary report in: Journal of the Polynesian Society , vol 85, no 1, pp