PDF Troubleshooting & Repairing Consumer Electronics Without a Schematic (Tab Electronics)

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Do not leave long leads on capacitors and resistors that can flop around. Make clean soldered joints or bonds. Take pride when replacing those new components. Sloppy part replacement can cause flames, resulting in extensive fires and even death. Overheated horizontal output and regulator transistors might be too hot to touch. Do not touch the metal body of the horizontal output transistor while the chassis is operating.

Mthough, the dc voltage might not be greater than Vdc, the peak voltage can cause shock hazards and make the technician drop tools or break costly test instruments. The TV chassis might be called a hot chassis, in references with a hot or cold ground Fig. Usually, the "hot" ground is insulated away from the metal chassis ground.

The hot ground is used in the ac power line, low-voltage power supply, switching and switched-mode power supplies. The horizontal circuits within the TV chassis might operate with a hot ground. Always use the "hot" ground as instrument ground when taking voltage measurements within these circuits or the voltage measurements will be inaccurate. Suspect that the HV shutdown circuits are defective if the chassis shuts down before the correct HV has been reached.

The blown fuse in the TV can be caused by leaky silicon diodes, the filter capacitor, regulator, and horizontal output transistors. If both the line fuse and secondary fuse is blown, suspect a shorted or leaky horizontal output transistor or flyback components. An improper drive voltage at the base of the horizontal output transistor can blow both fuses Fig. The primaq line fuse in the ac TV power supply might be a 1. Most TV chassis contain a 4- or 5-A fuse.

If the glow area of the fuse is black, check for a shorted overload condition. A small break in the fuse internal wire might indicate a flash-over component or power-line outage. Suspect lightning damage if the fuse holder is blown apart and the PC wiring is stripped. Always replace the line fuse with w e that has the exact ratings. Never replace the fuse with a high rating because it could later on cause a fire. A defective component in the low-voltage circuits can operate for a while md then cause chasQ horiz out From horiz driver. Check for improper drive voltage or waveforms at the horizontal output transistor ti the fuse keeps blowing.

Excessive high voltage can cause the chassis to shutdown when the internal W shutdown circuits are operating. If loud cracking and arc-over sounds can be heard around the HV cable, flyback, and CRT anode socket, suspect excessive high voltage. If the HV shutdown circuits are functioning, the chassis should shutdown at once. A defective HV shutdown circuit might cause the chassis to shut down at once or it might not shut down the chassis at all.

You would now hear a cracking and arcover symptom with excessive high voltage. Repair the low-voltage regulator circuits. Suspect that the high-voltage shutdown circuit is defective if the high-voltage shuts the chassis down at once. Usually, the HV shutdown circuits are coupled to a winding from the flyback transformer. Remove one end of the reference diode or Zener diode from the circuits.

Slowly raise the power-line voltage with isolation transformer. Suspect a hold-dom or safety capacitor is defective or open within the collector terminal of the horizontal output transistor, if the high-voltage raises beyond the critical level. Improper settings of these circuits can cause call backs and possible shock hazards. Never return the TV to the customer without making these adjustments.

Excessive power-line voltage at the customer's home can also cause high-voltage shutdown. Check the high-voltage at the CRT rubber connection with a high-voltage probe. Ground the wire-clip from the HV meter to the outside ground that grounds the picture tube. The picture tube ground wire is flat against the black outside glass area of CRT. If the meter ground wire is not grounded to the picture tube, you could receive a terrible shock and drop the HV probe when the sharp probe is inserted under the rubber HV wire.

Now check the HV at the picture tube. Be sure that the brightness control is set at a minimum. Recheck the HV at the picture tube and compare it to the manufacturer's HV on the schematic. Return the brightness and contrast control to a normal picture. Notice if the high-voltage measurement is below the original. The high voltage at the picture tube should never go over the manufacturer's listed high-voltage measurement.

Be very careful when making HV tests and working around the picture tube. Discharge the CRT before removing the defective tube. Carefully remove the back cover. Loosen the top screws and then the bottom. Hold the back so that it will not fall down against the CRT and possibly break or crack the neck of the tube. Remove the chassis.

Place the front of the tube or cabinet face down on a rubber mat or rug. Notice the mounting of each component from the neck of the CRT and around it. Remove the picture tube and lay it on its face on a rug or carpet so as not to scratch the screen area. Do not carry the picture tube against your stomach.

Two service technicians might be needed to remove and replace the very large picture tubes. Always wear safety glasses or goggles when removing and installing a new CRT. If so, only replace these components with exact replacements Fig. Often, these special parts work in crucial voltage circuits, such as the power sources, horizontal circuits, and flyback circuits. Sometimes universal parts replacement of crucial circuits will not operate within certain TVs.

Try to replace crucial safety-marked components with originals when possible. Always make a leakage current check aRer repairs. Keep your eyes at least one foot away from the optical laser beam Fig. Replace the crucial safety parts identified by the safety symbol A with originals. Do not alter the design or circuitry of the CD player to where it could result in injury or property damage. Remove all test clips and shorting devices around interlocks after repairs.

Keep a conductive mat under the test equipment and the CD player while sewicing it. With the ac plug removed from any source, connect an electrical jumper across the two ac plug prongs. Place the instrument ac switch in the ON position. Connect one lead of an ohmmeter lead in t u r n to each pushbutton control, exposed metal screw, metalized overlay, and each cable connector. If the measured resistance is less than 1. Measure leakage current to a known earth ground water pipe, conduit, etc. Plug the ac line cord into ac outlet and turn the switch on Fig.

Any current measured must not exceed 0. Repair the electronic product if more current is measured. Leakage current tester. You can damage your eyes if you stare at the bare optical lens assembly while the player is operating, so keep your eyes away from this area. The laser-ham warning label is usually fastened to the back of the laser optical assembly citing danger.

Remember, the laser beam is not visible like that of an LED or pilot light. Remove excess solder with an anti-static suction-type solder iron or braid. Replace the sensitive devices and solder them in with a low-wattage iron; the battery-operated solder iron is ideal.

Clip the metal part of the iron to the CD chassis to ground it. Wear a protective arm band and also clip it to khe chassis Fig. Use a conductive metal sheet or mat under the CD player and test equipment t o keep all units at the same ground potential. These screws hold the pickup assembly i n position; if they are not removed, the player might shut off and not operate. Look for these screws and any labels identifying them on the bottom chassis. Simply loosen the screw so that the mechanism is free. Some screws hkl out, and others cannot be completely removed.

If the screws are removed, tape them to the back of the chassis with masking tape. You should replace these screws or tighten them if they were not completely removed when you take the player in for repair or when you move it. Check for tight transport screws if the player won't operate. A lot of CD players have been brought into the shop or taken back to the dealer for repairs with the transport screws. A Phillips or straight screwdriver can usually be used to loosen these screws Fig.

Never look directly at the laser lens assembly while servicing the CD player. Keep your eyes away from that m a. Also be sure that a disc is in the tray at all times. The laser outputs are controlled by the injection or cut off of the constant voltage source to the laser diode at pin 30 of 1C Fig. When pin 30 is in "H" high level, the laser emits the beam. When pin 30 is in "L" low level, the laser does not emit the beam.

Pin 30 is set in high level when the unit is loaded with the disc and is reading the index signals or in the Play mode. When the player reads the index signals and the loading limit switch has the disc tray loaded, and the pickup is located at the inside starting area, the laser emits the beam. After these conditions are met and the index signals have been read, the laser emits the beam when the Play key or remote-control transmitter is pressed, and when the display is on. Other interlock safety circuits and switches are activated when the tray is loading and unloading.

The interlock switch is open disabling the laser when the tray is out; it is closed with the disc loaded when the tray is in turning on the laser beam. In other players, the laser beam is not turned on unless a disc is placed on the spindle Fig. With the tray empty, the light emitted by an LED can shine on a phototransistor and shut down the lower assembly. When a disc is mounted on the spindle, it blocks the LED light from striking the phototrmsistor and turns the laser beam on Fig.

If the disc motor starts to run with the tray open or no disc is loaded on the spindle, suspect that the interlock switch is bent m damaged or a defective LEDlphototransistor circuit. The LED can be checked like any o r d i n q diode. Always remove the shorting pin or piece of plastic that holds the interlock switch engaged after servicing the portable CD player.

Remember, do not look at the lens assembly if the disc spindle is rotating with no disc in position. Safe Microwave Usage To prevent the risk of burns, fires, and electrical shock, the owner or operator should observe the following guidelines: Follow the microwave oven instructions before attempting to cook. You must be extremely c m h l at all times, but this does not mean that you have to be afraid to operate the microwave oven.

Be sure that the oven is installed properly. Most ovens include a three-prong plug. You can pick up one at your local hardware store or electrical dealer Fig. Do not, under my circumstances, cut or remove the third ground prong from the power plug. The small, flexible grounding wire with a spade lug should be screwed under the plate screw of the ac outlet.

Use a voltmeter to determine if the center screw of the ac receptacle is grounded. Install a separate outlet from the fuse box for the microwave oven. Do not use an ordinary two-wire extension cord to operate the oven. If you need an extension cord, contact a local electrician or the appliance dealer that sold you the oven.

Be sure that the ac power outlet is never less than volts or more than volts for proper oven operation. The microwave oven is designed to operate from to Vac. Don't just plug the oven into an overloaded outlet if several appliances m already tapped into it. If you do, the oven might operate erratically and never cook properly. Install or locate the oven only in accordance with the installation instructions. Don't install the oven where the side or top opening might be blocked.

The hot cooking air must escape, and fresh air must be pulled into the oven for normal operation. Don't operate the microwave oven if the power cord or plug is damaged. Repair the three-wire cord or install a new cord, and be sure that the ground wire is intact. Check the continuity from the metal cabinet to the ground wire terminal with the low range of an o h m e t e r Fig. Supervise children who are operating the oven. Most microwave oven problems are related to improper oven operation.

Don't use the oven outdoors. Do not let the cord hang.

Troubleshooting & Repairing Consumer Electronics Without a Schematic Homer L.

Keep the ac cord away from heated surfaces or a nearby cooking stove. Don't use metallic cooking containers. Use only cooking utensils or accessories of the type recommended by the manufacturer or microwave cookbmks. Don't use any material that might explode in the oven.

Some sealed glass containers or plastic jars could build up pressure and explode. A regular paper sack with food inside might explode and cause a fire if steam or air holes are not punched in the top of the sack. A fire inside the oven might cause the plastic heat shields and front oven coverings to melt.

This could result in a fairly expensive oven repair. Keep the oven cavity spotlessly clean. Cooking htty items, such as bacon, might, in time, cause grease to collect behind the plastic shelf supports on plastic microwave guide cover, resulting in excessive arcing and damage. Do not operate the oven with nothing in it. Use liquid window cleaner or a very mild detergent with a soft, clean cloth over the oven's face and interior surfaces.

Do not use any kind of commercial oven cleaner inside of the oven area. Use a paper towel or sponge to blot up and remove spills while the oven is still warm. Pull the oven's power cord out if h e is discovered inside the oven cavity. Keep the oven door closed to help smother the fire. Clean out the top area or exhaust areas for signs of food pulled up by the fan Fig.

A collection of food particles might in time cause a persistent odor.

Troubleshooting & Repairing Consumer Electronics Without a Schematic Homer L. | Trade Me

Some odors can be eliminated by boiling a one-cup solution of several tablespoons of lemon juice dissolved in water in the oven cabinet. Don't change the operation of the oven while it is in operation. This is a good way to blow the fuse of a microwave oven. Touch the Stop button and start the operation all over again. Don't assume that the microwave oven is defective if lines are streaking across the face of the TV in a nearby room.

Most ovens cause some type of interference to nearby TVs. When the microwave oven fails, be sure that the three-prong cable plug is installed in the ac outlet. Plug in a Iamp or radio to be sure that the outlet is alive. Go over the operation instructions very carefully before calling the service person. Don't' remove the back cover of the microwave oven unless you know what you are doing. K e e p the power cord pulled when the back cover is off. Discharge the HV capacitor before trying to even change the A fuse Fig.

It's possible to receive a dangerous. This capacitor can hold a dangerous charge for weeks after the oven has been shut off. Never stick a tool or your hand inside the oven area while the oven is operating Fig. Before checking any compunent or wiring in the oven, discharge the high-voltage capacitor, just. The big difference between the high-voltage of a TV and a microwave oven is the amperage; you might be severely shocked or killed if the high-voltage capacitor is not discharged.

Always discharge the capacitor with an insulated-handle screwdriver before working in the high-voltage area. Be sure that the oven is properly grounded before attempting to service it. If you're not certain, clip a flexible wire from a water pipe or fuse box to a metal screw on the back cover or metal chassis.

Do not use a regular two-wire extension cord to operate the oven while servicing it. The microwave oven should not be operated with the door open Fig. Do not, for any reason, defeat the interlock switches. Check and replace all defective monitors and latch switches if the oven will not shut off with the door open. The oven should never be operated if the door does not fit properly against the seal. Check for broken or damaged hinges. Visually inspect the seal gasket for possible cut or missing pieces. Check the gasket seal area for foreign matter. Be sure that the oven door is mounted straight and fits snug against the oven.

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Readjust the door if it is loose between the door and oven. Always remember to check all interlock switch functions before the oven is returned to the customer. While servicing a microwave oven, it's best to have the service bench away from the customer and not talk to anyone while working on the oven. Outside distractions might cause you to make a mistake that could result in an injury.

Always keep your hands out of the oven operation area when the oven is operating. After making any repairs or service adjustments, check the oven for excessive radiation Fig. To ensure that the oven does not emit excessive radiation and that it meets the Department of Health and Human Services guidelines, the oven must be checked for leakage with an approved radiation meter. Especially check for radiation around the door Vac. Although a few components can be substituted, most microwave oven parts should be replaced with those that have the original part number.

These can be obtained from the manufacturer or oven distributors. When replacing cuntrol-panel circuits, do not touch any part of the board because static electricity might damage the control. Usually these controls arrive packed in a static-free wrap and carton Fig. If the oven has been dropped, inspect the door seal and hinges before you do any other servicing on it. Be sure that the door closes properly and that no foreign matter is inside the dour.

Check the door for leakage with a radiation leakage meter Fig. Always be sure that the oven is grounded with a three-prong wall receptacle. The oven should operate b m a wall receptacle directly fused by the fuse box. It is best to have a competent electrician install the three-prong wall receptacle. Use only a three-wire extension cord between the oven and the wall outlet. Never reach into the oven compariment area while the oven is operating.

When making ohmmeter or continuity tests, unplug the oven from the ac power line. If ac voltage measurements are t o be made, clip in the voltmeter while the oven is off. Do not touch the. Before checking any components in the oven, short out the two capacitor terminals. Always discharge the HV capacitor each time that the oven is energized Fig. Failure to discharge the capacitor couM result in a severe electrical shock.

Do not defeat or bypass the interlock door switches. They are there to protect the operator. Each interlck should be checked for proper operation. Check each interlock with an ohmmeter and the oven power cord disconnected from the wall socket. Discharge the HV capacitor before checking any oven component. The power transformer, HV capacitor, HV diode, and magnetron tube contain high voltage W when the oven is operating Fig.

Do not touch any component in the oven while it is operating. When the oven shuts off, discharge the HV capacitor before attempting to perform any type of service. Be very careful when taking high voltages in the HV section.

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  6. Connect a Magnameter ta the HV section for high-voltage and current measurements. Check the magnetron level and secure bolts to eliminate hot spots or radio frequency RF arcing. Mways replace the RF gasket around the magneiron tube antenna when replacing the magnetron. Do not use metd tools near the magnetron because it can jerk them out of your hands, sometimes breaking off the glass-enclosed antenna assembly Fig.

    Always make a microwave leakage test with the approved radiation meter after all repairs are made. This should be done before the oven h n t and side cleanup procedures. High-voltage is present when the power transformer, HV diode and capacitor, and magnetron are operating. The outlet should be polarized and grounded. An improper ac outlet might electrically shock the operator. Check the ac outlet for correct ac voltage 1 17 to Vac Fig. Determine if the kefl side of the outlet is grounded.

    If the ac receptacle is wired correctly, the right side of the outlet should be hot. Always remember to pull the plug or cord before attempting to sewice the oven Fig. Each time that the oven is h e d up, pull the plug and discharge the HV capacitor before putting your hands in the oven. Pull the plug before clipping test equipment to components in the oven. Pull the plug before taking continuity or resistance measurements of oven components.

    If, by accident, you are shocked by the HV capacitor and you end up with a metallic task in your mouth, you will know how careless and how lucky you are. Be very careful when making high-voltage tests in the microwave oven. Most manufacturers do not recommend taking high-voltage measurements. Only use a Mag-. Every oven should be checked with a U.

    Government leakage standard survey meter Fig.


    Most people are afraid of microwave radiation. So, check for leakage around the front door and gap areas. When testing near a comer of the door, keep the probe perpendicular t o the surface, being sure that the probe end at the base of the cone does not get closer than two inches from any metal. Slightly pull on the door while the oven is operating and notice if there is leakage. The door might have some play that lets the microwave energy escape. Do nat place metal tools near the glass antenna envelope and magnet, to prevent breaking the glass antenna assembly.

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    Remember, the danger that lurks in corners, over a hot soldering iron, in high-voltage areas, and within heavy-current components. Have fun and play it safe out there. Read Free For 30 Days. Consumer Electronics Troubleshooting and Repair Handbook. Flag for inappropriate content. For Later. Related titles. Carousel Previous Carousel Next.

    Practical electronic fault finding and troubleshooting By Robin Pain. Basic Electronic Troubleshooting for Biomedical Technicians 2ed. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Isolate the symptom to a block dlagram and then use the clrcult 21 IC servo control 1 6 I00 k 23 I00 k Loading motor Trace the dead loadlng motor symptom to the system control IC, driver C, and loading motor. Although many TV technicians might service a TV or camcorder without a schematic, it is not practical over the long run Fig. Signal tracing audio circuits can be checked by A schematic dlagram Is a must-have Item when troubleshooting a difficull problem.

    Check the high voltage at the picture tube with a hlgh-voltage probe. Pull the portable lV chassis back or remove il for easy access. Open base to collector Leaky between base and emitter of DMM. Check lC part number 1 Replace large processors and E s wlth those that have the orlglnal part number.

    I U deflection IC C 0. Use a soldering pencil or regulated soldering iron tmponents. IC Hor. High-voltage fixed resistors should be replaced with those that have the same RL nuwer 'Critical components Replace all safety parts in the TV chassis. A defective component in the low-voltage circuits can operate for a while md then cause chasQ horiz out From horiz driver To flyback T C 1 R 2! D Check for improper drive voltage or waveforms at the horizontal output transistor ti the fuse keeps blowing.

    Leakage current tester Device being Test all exposed metal surfaces 2-wire cord Reading should not be above 0. A lot of CD players have been brought into the shop or taken back to the dealer for repairs with the transport screws Ground conductive Soldering iron with ground wire Ground line less than Conductive gum mat [U 10 R G U R E2. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Be the first to like this. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. If you want to download this book, click link in the last page 5. You just clipped your first slide!

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