A more concise overview accessible to nonlawyers is Slye and Van Schaack Second, the Laws of Armed Conflict, which are composed of both Geneva Law—obligations toward protected persons, such civilians or soldiers who have been captured or wounded—and Hague Law—which regulates the means and methods of warfare—establish the legal basis for war crimes prosecutions. Kalshoven and Zegveld provide a comprehensive exposition of the major treaties and their interpretation, while Best explains the historical evolution of the laws of war in theory and in practice.
Gutman, et al. Alston and Goodman is the most comprehensive text in the field, while Buergenthal, et al.
Alston, Philip, and Ryan Goodman. International Human Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press, A comprehensive text introducing students to international human rights law, focusing on its normative foundations, the codification of rights into treaties, and mechanisms for enforcement by the UN, regional organizations, states, nongovernmental organizations, and international criminal tribunals.
Why the United States rejects international criminal justice: looking back at Nuremberg
Bantekas, Ilias. Edited by Anthony Carty. New York: Oxford University Press, A comprehensive annotated bibliography on international criminal law, focusing on its sources, jurisprudence, and history. Best, Geoffrey. War and Law since Oxford: Clarendon, International Human Rights in a Nutshell. Paul, MN: West Academic, Cassese, Antonio. International Criminal Law.
International criminal justice fails to meet the challenge of environmental crimes
A comprehensive and authoritative overview of international criminal law, covering its sources, the categories of conduct over which it can be applied, theories used to establish or exclude liability, its historical evolution, and the processes through which trials take place. Cassese, Antonio, ed. A 1,page resource consisting of essays on key controversies in international criminal law, followed by two long encyclopedia-style appendices, the first on issues, institutions, and personalities, and the second providing brief summaries of key cases in international criminal law.
New York: Norton, An A-to-Z dictionary of key concepts in the laws of war with concrete illustrations, the purpose of which is to make international humanitarian law accessible to journalists and to the general public.
Kalshoven, Fritz, and Liesbeth Zegveld. DOI: A thorough and concise textbook introduction to the Laws of Armed Conflict, focusing on its sources, the Geneva Conventions, the Additional Protocols, and more recent treaties and doctrinal developments. Ratner, Steven R. Abrams, and James L. Analysis of legal precedents for prosecuting genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and torture, and their application in national and international courts.
The book concludes by applying these precedents to efforts to prosecute Khmer Rouge leaders for atrocities in Cambodia in the late s. Slye, Ronald, and Beth Van Schaack. International Criminal Law: The Essentials. New York: Aspen, This is influenced by a range of factors, including whether an accountability process exists or is likely to be established, the likelihood of being called to account, the likely level of political support to shield the perpetrator and the level of public opinion in favour of perpetrators being called to account.
Promoting fair and effective criminal justice
It is important to reduce the expectation of impunity and remove rewards for violence by making accountability more likely. At the same time, victims and affected populations who believe there will be impunity for violations committed against them are generally less likely to have trust in institutions or in the State itself, creating a cycle in which conflict and violence are more likely to continue. Reducing the expectation of impunity increases the likelihood of victims and affected populations re gaining trust in public institutions, which also strengthens the ability of accountability mechanisms to play a role in conflict reduction and prevention, sustainable peace and development, including poverty reduction.
NPWJ seeks to influence these factors in favour of reducing the expectation of impunity and the perception of reward for violence through a variety of methods, including technical assistance, advocacy, outreach, capacity-building and public campaigns.
Since this objective is closely related to the first, it is pursued in the same countries where accountability processes are needed or are ongoing as well as at the international level. Accountability mechanisms may be designed and implemented according to the highest international standards, but their effectiveness is limited if they are not responsive to the needs and aspirations of their stakeholders, as they will have little impact in promoting deterrence, redress and contributing to sustainable peace and development in the countries where violations were committed.
To be responsive, accountability mechanisms need to consult regularly with stakeholders on the ground, engage them in two-way interaction regarding their mandate and operations, promote participation of stakeholders in their work and be transparent and accountable to victims and affected communities on the ground.
NPWJ seeks to achieve this objective through a variety of methods, including advocacy, technical assistance and campaigns. NPWJ also engages with the ICC and its States parties to promote support for a stronger international justice system that is more responsive to victims and affected communities, and more effective in ending impunity. The promotion of the universality of the Rome Statute and the adoption of national legislation implementing international criminal justice obligations also remains a high priority for NPWJ, as does supporting the practical operation of the principle of complementarity, whereby the ICC acts as a catalyst, as a guardian and as a last resort for the effective investigation and prosecution of serious crimes under international law.
NPWJ aims in particular to increase awareness and building capacity of local actors on international and transitional justice issues in which NPWJ has specialist expertise, including conflict mapping, outreach and the needs of children in accountability mechanisms.
- Invoking the “spirit of Nuremberg”.
- International Centre for Criminal Law Reform & Criminal Justice Policy.
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- AIDP | Association Internationale De Droit Pénal.
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NPWJ aims to address these needs through its work on a range of different initiatives, including:.